A Salute to Early Women in STEM at UC Berkeley

During the first hundred years at UC Berkeley women students and faculty were minimally present in science and engineering. By 1870, in its second year, the Faculty Senate proposed to the Regents the admission of women “on equal basis with men.” The Regents voted unanimously and next year Berkeley opened the door to eight women students.  Further, women “could pursue the same curriculum of instruction as the other sex.” Four years later, President Gilman remarked that “the proportion of women who ranked high in scholarship was greater than that of men.”[1] After ten years, women students represented about one quarter of the student body, 62 out of 244 students. In 2019 women make up over half the undergraduates at UC Berkeley.

First Women Researchers in STEM

Agnes Fay Morgan

In contrast to growing numbers of students, the faculty was almost devoid of women. Qualified female scientists were hired into non tenure-track faculty positions. An outstanding scholar, Agnes Fay Morgan, earned a PhD in Organic Chemistry from the University of Chicago in 1914, but was appointed as professor of nutrition. When she came to interview at Berkeley, she was scheduled with the dean, but he sent his wife and teenage daughter in his place. Morgan accepted the Berkeley job as assistant professor of nutrition in 1915, for which she was paid $1,800; male faculty members at the university were paid $2,400 if they had a doctorate and $1,800 without one. The next year, she co-founded the Department of Home Economics. Two years later she was sole chair of the new Department of Household Science which became the Department of Home Economics, within UC Berkeley’s College of Agriculture. Agnes Morgan encouraged women students through her role as advisor to the women in chemistry honor society, Iota Sigma Pi, for forty years.[2] Morgan rose to full professor and achieved distinction as an influential researcher. Active until 1954, Morgan was named faculty research lecturer at UC Berkeley in 1950, the first woman to be so honored.[3]  Morgan Hall on the Berkeley campus is named for her.

Two women taught in the Mathematics Department in the 1920s and 30s: Pauline Sperry and Emma Lehmer. Neither was hired in a tenure track position. Pauline Sperry moved to UC Berkeley from Smith College in 1917 as an instructor, after earning a PhD from the University of Chicago in 1916. In 1923 she became the first woman to be promoted to assistant professor in the Berkeley Mathematics Department, and then to associate professor in 1931. Sperry’s specialty was geometry and she taught many of the geometry courses at Berkeley. Although she never published another research paper after her PhD dissertation, Sperry successfully directed five PhD students at Berkeley between 1931 and 1949, all of whom went on to academic careers. During the 1920s she wrote two textbooks, Short Course in Spherical Trigonometry and Plane Trigonometry.[4]  In addition, in 1931 she published a Bibliography of Projective Differential Geometry.

Emma Lehmer earned a B.S. in math from UC Berkeley in 1928, and a Master’s degree from Brown in 1930 at the same time her fellow mathematician, Richard H. Lehmer, and future husband was studying for his PhD.  She married Richard Lehmer, who was hired at Berkeley.  The University of California’s anti-nepotism policy forbade Emma Lehmer from teaching at UC Berkeley while her husband was on the faculty, though she was permitted to teach a few statistics courses when the policy was briefly an exception during World War II.  Lehmer did war-related work in Berkeley’s Statistics Lab in the 1940s, as did Pauline Sperry and Elizabeth Scott. She pursued mathematics while raising two children and working as an independent scholar. Emma Lehmer wrote or co-authored about 60 mathematical papers, of which 21 were joint with D. H. Lehmer. She and her husband collaborated on a famous, four century-old mathematical problem known as Fermat’s Last Theorem. At the age of eighty, “she discovered that certain units can be gotten from Gaussian periods by translation, a good example of the kind of basic number theory that she and her husband had done all their lives.” Lehmer lived to be 100.[5]

Phoebe Waterman (1882-1967) was one of the first two women to earn a PhD in astronomy at Berkeley, in 1914. Waterman graduated from Vassar College and worked as an astronomer before being accepted to Berkeley’s graduate program. Waterman commented about competing with men:  “I am getting used to the different standard a little—for it surely is a different one, and quite a different thing from measuring up against women.” Waterman’s professors thought, at the time, she was as capable as any man. Armin Otto Leuschner, who ran Berkeley’s astronomy program, described Waterman as “one of the most unusually well-equipped women we have ever had at Berkeley. She is brilliant, quick and accurate and disposes of her work with promptness and accuracy.”[6] She is believed to be the first woman astronomer to conduct her own telescopic research rather than to rely on the observations of others. She studied at the historic Lick Observatory near San Jose, Calif. Despite her productivity as an independent scholar, Phoebe Waterman never attained a faculty position. In a case similar to that of Emma Lehmer, it is reported that she gave up her career as a promising astronomer to marry and care for a family, but she continued to be involved in astronomy by making scientific observations and performing calculations to participate in citizen science efforts. Her grandson Otto Haas donated six million dollars to support science education in the name of Phoebe Waterman Haas Public Observatory at the National Air and Space Museum.

Elizabeth Scott

Phoebe Waterman’s niece, Elizabeth Leonard Scott (1917-1988), graduated from Berkeley in 1939 with a BA in astronomy.  While working as a young astronomer, Scott was hired by Professor Jerzy Neyman to conduct research on precision bombing as a research assistant in his recently formed Statistics Lab.[7] Statistical work contributing to the US effort in World War II soon became the principal focus of the Statistics Lab.  Scott wrote her first research publication, about comets, when she was 22.  She went on to earn a PhD in Astronomy from Berkeley in 1949. Since women were barred from access to certain telescopes, Scott realized that because of obvious discrimination, she would have more research opportunities as a mathematician than as astronomer. She recalled her reasoning: “Well, it is not too often that you can actually put your finger on a discrimination and you know that you really can prove that it was there. There was no secret about it. Women were not allowed to use the big telescopes at Mt. Wilson, the 60-inch and 100-inch. Women were not on the staff. There are no women on the staff at the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories … It was just forbidden. That went on for many years.”[8]

Betty Scott never abandoned her interest in astronomy, however, and eventually published 42 journal articles on various topics in astronomy.  Scott was hired by Professor Jerzy Neyman as an Assistant Professor in the Mathematics Department in 1951. When the new Statistics Department split off from Mathematics in 1955, Scott joined the Statistics faculty and eventually served as Chair of Statistics. In the 1970s as co-chair of a Berkeley Academic Senate Committee on the Status of Women, she applied statistical methods to conduct well publicized and consequential studies on salary disparities between men and women faculty at UC Berkeley and in the nation.[9] Thus, she became a heroine to women faculty of her generation.[10]

Julia Robinson

Julia Bowman Robinson also joined the Mathematics Department as an assistant to Professor Jerzy Neyman in the Statistics Lab in 1941 after earning a BA in Mathematics from Berkeley in 1940 and a PhD in 1948. After her marriage to Raphael Robinson, a faculty colleague in the Math department, campus nepotism rules prevented Robinson from being appointed to a tenure track position. Elizabeth Scott, who knew Robinson from their days as grad students together, described some of Robinson’s difficulties in securing a position at Berkeley, despite her prominence in mathematics. At one point, wrote Scott, Robinson was required to submit a description of what she did each day to Berkeley’s personnel office. So she did: “Monday–tried to prove theorem, Tuesday–tried to prove theorem, Wednesday–tried to prove theorem, Thursday–tried to prove theorem; Friday–theorem false.” The personnel office then let the graduate division handle Robinson’s appointment.                             

  Scott appreciated the support given by Julia Robinson and said that Robinson “… felt that women and minority mathematicians especially needed this support, which she provided with spirit yet in a quiet way… She encouraged us to work together so that all women who have the ability and the desire to do mathematical research can have the opportunity to do so.”  Finally, in 1975, after Robinson achieved major national recognition as the first woman mathematician elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the Mathematics Department offered Robinson a full professorship.[11] She was the first woman to head the American Mathematical Society.

Marian Diamond

Marian Cleeves Diamond (1937-2017), the distinguished neuroscientist, earned a doctorate in the UCB Department of Anatomy in 1948. Only in 1960 did she secure a tenure track position after working for twelve years with the title of Lecturer. She was a beloved and enthusiastic teacher at Berkeley, and famous for her lectures to entering freshmen on the physiology of the brain.[12] Professor Diamond’s YouTube lectures on the brain made her one of the most popular college professors in the world. She carried a colorful hatbox containing a human brain to class. Diamond’s research exploring the physiology of the brain was extremely significant, Studying rats raised in isolation as compared with rats living in enriched environments, Diamond found the rats raised with toys and rat playmates could navigate a maze more easily than the others.

Her breakthrough research demonstrated the plasticity of the brain, and its capability to continue to develop in old age. “…she shattered the old paradigm of understanding the brain as a static and unchangeable entity that simply degenerated as we age.”[13] Diamond was a widely celebrated researcher and teacher when she died at the age of ninety in 2017.

Mary K. Gaillard

Not until 1981 was the first woman appointed to the Physics faculty at Berkeley, Mary K. Gaillard, and she became the first woman to receive tenure in Physics at Berkeley. Gaillard was hired at Berkeley after serving seventeen years as a visiting scientist at CERN in Switzerland. “It took me a long time to realize I was better than a lot of people who were getting hired. Once it sunk in, then I started getting very frustrated,” she explained in her 2015 memoir, A Singularly Unfeminine Profession: One Woman’s Journey in Physics.[14]

A Woman Appointed to Computer Science Faculty

Susan Graham became the first female faculty member when she was appointed Assistant Professor of Computer Science in 1971 to the College of Letters and Science. This occurred two years before Computer Science merged with Electrical Engineering to form a single department. When the Computer Science Department was merged into the College of Engineering, Graham became not only the first woman faculty member in CS but also the first female faculty member in the entire College of Engineering. After she joined the faculty, Graham married a colleague in Computer Science. At the time that her case came up for tenure, the administration conducted a nepotism review because that policy prevented two close relatives from appointments in the same department, except by special permission of the Chancellor. Her promotion was approved by Chancellor Bowker.[15] Graham remained the sole woman faculty member in EECS for seventeen years. She commented on her appointment:

Susan Graham

I was the first woman in that department, but it was a very small department. Two years later, that department got merged into the one I’m in now (EECS), which is the one in Engineering; so I was transferred into the College of Engineering, and thereby became the first woman faculty member in the College of Engineering.

And it wasn’t because they wanted a woman; they inherited me rather than hiring me. That was the case for a long time, that I was the only woman in the college. There were periods when, in other departments, a woman would be hired, be here for a few years, and leave again or not get tenure. I think it was seventeen years before there was another tenured woman in the College of Engineering.[16]

Susan Graham remained the sole woman in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences until Avideh Zakhor was hired as Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering in 1988, the second woman faculty member in EECS. Zakhor had graduated first in her class at California Institute of Technology in just three years, and earned a PhD from MIT. For the twenty-four year old assistant professor, gaining the respect of the administrative staff was a challenge. ​“I didn’t feel anything special being the first appointed woman in EE. The main issue I had was to get the staff (particularly the female staff) to take me seriously. At one point, I had to get a senior faculty member to come and introduce me to the staff on the 5th floor of Cory Hall and tell them explicitly that they should do the jobs I ask them to do for my courses.”[17]

In addition, Zakhor is candid in stating an opinion shared by many women, that professional women in STEM with equivalent abilities have to work harder than men due to “this inherent bias” and that women make greater sacrifices in order to balance family and career. “I know a lot of women who deliberately don’t choose academic careers in science and engineering, because they see that what it takes to succeed conflicts with their personal goals of raising children and having a family. The ones who choose it anyway sacrifice even more than men in my opinion, because they have to fight against this inherent bias that’s ingrained in the system. If the men are working 80 hours a week, you work 85 hours. You have to continually prove that you’re better.”[18]

Women Engineering Students at Berkeley

A century before the arrival of women on the engineering faculty, a handful of women students studied engineering at UC Berkeley. Between 1900 and 1940, only two women earned engineering degrees.  The culture of the era is reflected on the cover of a Berkeley engineering publication of 1919, containing a photograph with this caption:  “The Mechanics Building, a picturesque ivy-grown fortress, home of the Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, sanctuary of man, where he may be forever inviolable by the female of the species”[19]

The first female engineering graduate, Elizabeth Bragg (1854-1929), earned her degree from the College of Mechanics in 1876. Bragg never worked professionally as an engineer, but she married an engineer and stayed home to rear a family.

Julia Morgan

Julia Morgan (1872-1957), class of 1894, is extremely well known in the San Francisco Bay Area.[20] As the first woman civil engineering student in the country, Morgan’s life was a long succession of “firsts” at every stage of her career. The only woman in her class, Morgan studied architectural design under Bernard Maybeck,[21] who became a mentor. After graduating from UC Berkeley, Morgan earned a certificate in architecture in 1901 from the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, the first woman to do so.  Three years later Morgan was the first woman to receive a California architectural license. Julia Morgan designed over 700 buildings in California, including the Hearst Castle at San Simeon. She was an expert on the use of reinforced concrete, such as the Campanile on the campus of Mills College in Oakland. On the Berkeley campus, she designed the Senior Women’s Hall in 1911, for women undergraduates to have a meeting place. Women undergraduates helped plan and raise the money for the building, similar to an existing Senior Hall for men. Morgan worked on the Hearst Women’s Gymnasium with Maybeck and the Greek Theater with John Galen Howard.[22]

Lillian Moller Gilbreth

Berkeley’s most prominent female engineering alumna, Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972), majored in English. An Oakland resident, Lilian Moller attended Berkeley as an undergraduate and received a bachelor’s degree in English literature in 1900 and a master’s degree in 1902. As the first female valedictorian, Lillian shared the stage at her graduation with University President Benjamin Ide Wheeler. She intended to pursue a PhD at Berkeley, but had meantime married a fellow engineer, Frank Gilbreth. UC Berkeley would have required her to spend another year in residence. In order to join her husband in the East, she transferred to Brown to earn her PhD in Psychology. The Gilbreths were a formidable engineering team.

When her husband died, Gilbreth was the widowed mother of twelve children. Until fairly recently, Gilbreth has been best remembered as the subject of the memoir Cheaper by the Dozen, from which two movies were made.[23]  The Gilbreths carried out time-motion studies to increase industrial efficiency. After her husband’s early death, she carried on. Gilbreth is the acknowledged founder of the field of industrial engineering. She extended her experiments into the home in an effort to find the “one best way” to perform household tasks. She broke new ground in the area of assistance to the disabled, e.g. designing the layout of an ideal kitchen for the person with heart disease. Her book The Psychology of Management: the Function of the Mind in Determining, Teaching and Installing Methods of Least Waste[24] was originally her doctoral thesis for UC Berkeley. Gilbreth probed the “human element” in industrial management and psychology; the book is regarded as a seminal work in the field.

Lillian Gilbreth was the first woman engineer elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), the highest honor that can be given to an engineer. She served as personal consultant to Thomas J. Watson of IBM, and to President Herbert Hoover. Among her posthumous honors is the National Academy of Engineering’s Lillian M. Gilbreth Lectureship for Young Engineers, established in 2001, which offers outstanding younger engineers the opportunity to make presentations at NAE’s Annual and National Meetings. Seven current Berkeley EECS faculty have delivered Gilbreth Lecturers: Tsu-Jae King Liu, Connie Chang-Hasnain, David Tse, Alexander Bayen, Armando Fox, Ana Arias and Rikky Muller.[25] Belatedly, Gilbreth received two honorary degrees from Berkeley, and was chosen UC Berkeley Alumna of the Year in 1954, apparently at the urging of Nobel Prize winner Chancellor Glenn Seaborg and Dean of Engineering Morrough O’Brien.[26]

 The University of California did not systematically collect data based on ethnicity until the 1960s. Locating University records which track minority students in any field, much less engineering, presents a challenge, either through the Registrar, the Cal Alumni Association, or the Bancroft Library. The first African American women at Cal did not study engineering. There were no underrepresented women engineering graduates apparently until after World War II.[27]

World War II Opened Doors for Women in Engineering

Between 1900 and 1940, only two women earned undergraduate engineering degrees.  The culture of the era is reflected on the cover of a Berkeley engineering publication of 1919, containing a photograph with this caption:  “The Mechanics Building, a picturesque ivy-grown fortress, home of the Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, sanctuary of man, where he may be forever inviolable by the female of the species”[28]

However, World War II opened the doors of the campus to women as young men enlisted in the military. Thus, spaces in university classrooms opened up for women and consequently the number of engineering degrees granted to women increased. Fourteen women obtained bachelor’s degrees between1940-1950. Between 1950 and 1960, fifteen women graduated with engineering bachelor’s degrees, slightly more than one per year. Jesse Giambroni Cambra, (1919-2008) was the first woman to receive a degree from the Berkeley Department of Civil Engineering in the class of 1942. She told this anecdote about the difficulty she had in taking the required undergraduate surveying class:“I came to engineering because it was a challenge and they said I couldn’t get in. I asked ‘Where in the catalogue does it say they can’t get in?’ I wasn’t allowed to take the field trip for surveying in Fremont in the summer, because it was hotter than hell and men didn’t wear uppers. Dean Derlith said I could take any other courses instead, and if I baked him a couple of pies, he would give me a degree.”[29] Cambra worked as a civil engineer overseeing all the roads in Alameda County for 36 years.

Helen Joyce “H.J.” Peters (1930-2002), who earned a BS in Civil Engineering in 1951, attended Cal in the era when most of  her classmates were veterans returning from World War II,  and studying under the GI Bill. She wrote that it was “her duty to find blind dates for the students who otherwise had little contact with girls.”[30]   Peters did not mind being in a male-dominated field. “If anything, it helped. Being an oddity, people were always trying to help me.” On her first field trip, she was chaperoned by the wife of a fellow engineer.  Peters was the fourth woman to become registered in California as a civil engineer and worked for forty years in the California Department of Water Resources, where she began as an intern while at Cal. Peters was an international specialist in groundwater hydrology and management—both drought and flood- and served on the UC College of Engineering Advisory Council.

At the graduate level, the first woman to earn a doctorate in Electrical Engineering at Berkeley was Kawthar Zaki,[31] in 1969. Born in Egypt, Zaki received the MS and PhD degrees under Professor Andrew Neureuther. In 1970, she joined the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Maryland at College Park, as the first woman hired within the College of Engineering, and where currently she is Professor Emerita of Electrical and Computer Engineering and still teaching.

 During the decade of the 1970s fourteen women earned doctoral degrees in EE or CS at Berkeley.[32] None of them had majored in the new field of computer science as undergraduates. At least four of these alumnae are still active in academic careers at the time of this writing: Dana Angluin, Barbara Grosz, Estela Llinas and Anne-Louise Radimsky. A native of France, Anne-Louise Radimsky graduated in 1973, and was hired at UC Davis, the first woman faculty in computer science. Radimsky worked in aeronautical engineering in France before earning a scholarship to study computer science at Berkeley. She continues teaching upper-division CS courses at California State University Sacramento.[33] A psychology graduate from Cornell, Faye Duchin also got her PhD in 1973 (Michael Stonebreaker was her advisor) writing a dissertation on “Dissertation: Rents, Rent Control, and Non-Profit Rent Schedules: Analysis and Computer Simulation.” Duchin joined the Economics Department at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Patricia Daniels, a Berkeley undergraduate and PhD (1974) alumna, spent her academic career at the University of Washington and the University of Seattle, with time spent at NSF as Program Director for Undergraduate Education.

Dana Angluin received her PhD in 1976, and joined the Computer Science faculty at Yale University in 1979 and has remained at Yale ever since. Professor Angluin is active in the Computer Science Department and continues to teach.[34] Barbara Grosz (PhD 1977),Higgins Professor of Natural Sciences at Harvard University, came to Berkeley as a math graduate of Cornell. Grosz has been honored for her pioneering work in Artificial Intelligence and her leadership roles at Harvard, as Dean of the Radcliffe Institute of Advanced Studies and Founder of the Center for the Study of Language and Information.[35] As leader of the Radcliffe Institute, she chaired a comprehensive study of women faculty in STEM at Harvard. Professor Grosz is currently a leader at Harvard in the Embedded Ethics project to bring ethical reasoning into the computer science curriculum” by integrating ethics and philosophy into computer science.[36] Estela S. Llinas (PhD 1977) came to Berkeley from Cordoba, Argentina, already married, and completed an undergraduate degree in Physics at Berkeley. Llinas still teaches at the University of Pittsburgh and has taught courses at Berkeley in the summer. She noted that the women in the PhD program in her group were from France and Iran. As a PhD student she had two children by the time she completed her dissertation. She has been a champion for women in the field throughout her career.[37]

Paula Hawthorn (PhD 1979) was a major catalyst for the formation of the women’s graduate student organization, WICSE, along with Dr. Marie Anne Neimat (PhD 1979). Hawthorn has been involved in diversity programs since graduation, and is a frequently invited speaker by computer science student groups. Hawthorn was selected to receive the EECS Department’s Distinguished Alumnus/Alumna Award as was Professor Barbara Grosz.Representing the doctoral graduates of the 1970s, both Paula Hawthorn and Marie Anne Neimat spoke at the 40th Anniversary of WICSE, March 2018.[38]

We salute these pioneers during Women’s History Month.

[1] John Aubrey Douglas (2007). The Conditions for Admission: Access, Equity, and the Social Contract of Public Universities. Stanford University Press, 2007: pp. 21.-24.

[2] Kathryn M. Neal, Honor Among Fiends: UC’s Role in the Founding of Iota Sigma Pi. Newsletter of the Friends of Bancroft Library, Fall 2011, p. 13.

[3] Agnes Fay Morgan, American Chemist and Nutritionist. http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Ma-Na/Morgan-Agnes-Fay.html

[4] https://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/sperry.html  (Biographical material about Pauline Sperry)

[5] John Brillhart. Emma Lehmer, 1906-2006. December 2007 Notices of the American Mathematical Society, Vol.54, no.11, p. 1500. This article contains a bibliography of Emma Lehmer’s mathematical publications.

[6] https://airandspace.si.edu/stories/editorial/introducing-phoebe-waterman-haas-public-observatory

[7] In 1939 Professor Neyman recruited Elizabeth Scott, who had been auditing his course, as a research assistant in the Statistics Lab. https://statistics.berkeley.edu/history

[8] An Interview with Elizabeth Scott,  Oral History, The Women’s Faculty Club of the University of California, Berkeley, 1919-1982, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 1983, p.149.

[9]http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Scott_Elizabeth.html  “In 1970 Elizabeth Scott co-chaired with Elizabeth Colson a subcommittee of the Berkeley Senatewhich published a 78-page comprehensive study of the status of women in academia. “The report examined not only salary and benefits but also hiring, promotion and tenure, research opportunities and committee appointments…. Considerable disparities in treatment were documented and Scott promptly turned her attention to finding remedies. What Scott was doing here was unique. While most faculty women spent their time simply turning out evidence that they were paid less than their male counterparts, Scott was collaborating in studies, employing multiple regressions that soon were used by universities in making salary adjustments and came to be widely accepted as evidence in lawsuits. Her work on this topic earned Scott a reputation as a pioneer in applying statistical methods to research on the status of academic women.” http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Scott_Elizabeth.html

[10]Dr. Amanda Golbeck, a doctoral student of Professor Scott, has written a detailed biography based on Scott’s papers in the Bancroft Library. Amanda L. Golbeck. Equivalence: Elizabeth Scott at Berkeley. CRC Press, 2017.

[11] Solomon Feferman. “Julia Bowman Robinson, A Biographical Memoir,”Volume 63, National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1994. Professor Elizabeth Scott wrote of her: “Throughout her life Julia stood up for offering opportunities to all students…She also encouraged graduate students and young faculty to have more confidence in their real abilities. Quoted from Notices of the American Mathematical Society (November 1985, pages 739-42)

[12] “My Love Affair with the Brain: The Life and Science of Marian Cleeves Diamond” https://vimeo.com/20125847 is a 6-minute video summarizing her lecture.

[13] https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/16/science/marian-c-diamond-90-student-of-the-brain-is-dead.html

[14] Mary Gaillard. A Singularly Unfeminine Profession: One Woman’s Journey in Physics, World Scientific, 2015. Gaillard recounts her experiences in a male-dominated field, and her participation in the development of the Standard Model.

[15] Albert Bowker was married to a statistician, Rosedith Sitgreaves, who taught in the School of Education at Stanford and at California State University, Hayward.

[16]Susan Graham, an oral history conducted in 2002 by Janet Abbate, IEEE History Center, Hoboken, NJ, USA.

[17] Avideh Zakhor. Personal communication, February, 2016.

[18] Bonnie Azab Powell, Quoted in The Hungry Mind: Professor Avideh Zakhor. April 2005, UC Berkeley News. In 2018, Avideh Zakhor was named Electronic Imaging Scientist of the Year by the Society for Imaging Science and Technology in recognition of her many important contributions to signal processing, computer vision, and 3D imagining.

[19]Carl Abel. The Campus, University of California, Campus Photographs, Berkeley, 1919.

[20] Julia Morgan is the subject of a well researched book by Sara Boutelle: Julia Morgan, Architect. New York: Abbeville Press, 1988. 

[21]Morgan took Maybeck’s class although there was no school of architecture at UC Berkeley until 1903. https://archives.ced.berkeley.edu/collections/morgan-julia

[22] Julia Morgan, Architect to Town and Gown. Berkeley Architectural Heritage Newsletter November 2012. http://berkeleyheritage.com/eastbay_then-now/julia_morgan.html

[23] Ernestine Gilbreth Carey and Frank Gilbreth. Cheaper by the Dozen. (Thomas Crowell, 1948), a biographical novel written by two of Lillian Gilbreth’s children. They wrote a sequel, Belles on their Toes, in 1952.

[24] Gilbreth, Lillian M. The Psychology of Management: the Function of the Mind in Determining, Teaching and Installing Methods of Least Waste. New York: Sturgis and Walton, 1914.

[25] https://www.nae.edu/Activities/Projects/31202.aspx

[26] Lillian Gilbreth’s life and professional career are documented in several books and many articles, such as Jane Lancaster. Making Time: Lillian Moller Gilbreth, a Life Beyond “Cheaper by the Dozen” Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2004, and https://www.asme.org/career-education/articles/management-professional-practice/lillian-moller-gilbreth  

[27] Vivian Rodgers, who graduated in 1909, was the first African American female graduate of Berkeley.

[28]Carl Abel. The Campus, University of California, Campus Photographs, Berkeley, 1919.

[29] Jessie Cambra, ’42, Interview with Mary Breunig, Alumni Office, College of Engineering, UC Berkeley.

[30] California State Employee Newsletter, September 29, 1967

[31] https://ece.umd.edu/news/story/dr-kawthar-zaki-was-the-firstnbspfemale-professor-hired-within-the-college-of-engineering-at-the

[32] Rabab Kreideh Ward, Carol A. Ziegler, Dana Angluin, Anne Louise Radimsky, Anne G. Cottrell, Patricia Daniels, Nancy H. Mcdonald, Illeana Krumme, Barbara Grosz, Estela Llinas, Karel Allan Youseffi, Ana Flora De Castro Hunes, Paula Hawthorn,  and Marie Anne Neimat.

[33] https://publications.computer.org/annals/2018/04/19/anne-louise-guichard-radimsky-biography-first-women-phds-computer-science/

[34] https://cpsc.yale.edu/people/dana-angluin

[35]  https://grosz.seas.harvard.edu/

[36] https://embeddedethics.seas.harvard.edu/team.html

[37] Estela Llinas.Bejing Central, 2007, unpublished paper. See Alumna Profile:  Magdalene Crowley: Spotlight: Estela llinas. April 20, 2017. http://newsletter.eecs.berkeley.edu/2017/08/alumni-spotlight-estela-llinas/

[38] https://eecs.berkeley.edu/wicse40